To Serve Man
Posted by Lisa Towell at 6:23 AM | Permalink | Comments (8)
“To Serve Man” is a marvelous science fiction short story written in 1950 by Damon Knight. In it, an alien species called the “Kanamit” arrives on Earth, offering to give humankind “the peace and plenty which we ourselves enjoy.” People’s initial distrust gives way to gratitude as the Kanamit offer a cheap source of limitless energy, a device to render weapons of war obsolete, and cures for heart disease and cancer. To find out more about the aliens, two men try to learn their language with the help of a stolen book. After much effort, they translate the book’s title as “How to Serve Man,” which seems to prove the Kanamit’s benevolent intent. But when the men finally succeed in translating the first paragraph of “How to Serve Man,” they discover that it is a cookbook!
What makes the story especially horrifying is that all the generosity of the aliens suddenly appears in a different light: They are fattening up livestock for slaughter. Even though the Kanamit have made Earth a paradise with the abolition of hunger and war, they are revealed to be anything but benefactors—instead, they are enemies attempting to enslave humans as food animals.
But the Kanamit themselves might see things differently. After all, they have space travel, they’ve abolished war on their home planet, and they’ve developed sophisticated technology. They are more “advanced,” more “intelligent,” and altogether worthy to dine on lesser species, right? They are even humane in their treatment of humankind—the vast majority of people will live healthier and happier lives under their rule.
“To Serve Man” is a pretty accurate description of our relationship with animals. We are the Kanamit to the billions of individual cows, pigs, chickens, and fish who are our food. People often state that we have the right to eat animals because we are more “advanced” or “intelligent” than they are. It’s not a convincing argument when you consider how we’d feel about being eaten by an even more “advanced” species. Since when does “intelligence” bear any relationship to a sentient being’s ability to feel joy or suffer from pain?
Another argument that people make in defense of eating animals is the animals’ quality of life. “They are well-fed and protected from the weather and from predators.” “They wouldn’t even be alive at all if it weren’t for us.” “They die quick and painless deaths.” In other words, animals are the fortunate beneficiaries of all that we do for them; giving their lives for our meals is the least they can do in return.
But from the animals’ perspective, it’s a different story. Egg-laying hens and breeding sows live lives of nonstop misery, crammed into cages so small that they can’t even extend their limbs. The babies of cows used for dairy and those of pigs are forcibly separated from their mothers within a few days of birth, sometimes immediately. Many animals are improperly stunned at the slaughterhouse, leaving them to die slow and agonizing deaths on the disassembly line. And all animals on factory farms are killed while still young, living out only a small fraction of their natural lifespan. It would be far better for them never to have lived at all than to live as mere commodities in our modern factory farming systems.
If humans were obligate carnivores like tigers or dolphins, we’d face some serious ethical and environmental dilemmas in feeding our worldwide population of almost 7 billion. But humans don’t need to eat animals to thrive. The American Dietetic Association states that “appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful [and] nutritionally adequate ….” People eat animals because they’re used to doing it and because they like the taste—not because they need to.
If an alien species ever does visit our planet, I hope we’ll be able to impress them with how far we have “advanced”—far enough to treat animals with respect and compassion by not using them as food.
Albert Einstein published his general theory of relativity in 1916, profoundly affecting the study of physics and cosmology for years. He won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921 for his work on the photo-electric effect. Einstein taught for many years at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton.
This essay aired circa 1954.
The most beautiful thing we can experience is the Mysterious — the knowledge of the existence of something unfathomable to us, the manifestation of the most profound reason coupled with the most brilliant beauty. I cannot imagine a God who rewards and punishes the objects of his creation, or who has a will of the kind we experience in ourselves. I am satisfied with the mystery of life's eternity and with the awareness of — and glimpse into — the marvelous construction of the existing world together with the steadfast determination to comprehend a portion, be it ever so tiny, of the reason that manifests itself in nature. This is the basics of cosmic religiosity, and it appears to me that the most important function of art and science is to awaken this feeling among the receptive and keep it alive.
I sense that it is not the State that has intrinsic value in the machinery of humankind, but rather the creative, feeling individual, the personality alone that creates the noble and sublime.
Man's ethical behavior should be effectively grounded on compassion, nurture and social bonds. What is moral is not the divine, but rather a purely human matter, albeit the most important of all human matters. In the course of history, the ideals pertaining to human beings' behavior towards each other and pertaining to the preferred organization of their communities have been espoused and taught by enlightened individuals. These ideals and convictions — results of historical experience, empathy and the need for beauty and harmony — have usually been willingly recognized by human beings, at least in theory.
The highest principles for our aspirations and judgments are given to us westerners in the Jewish-Christian religious tradition. It is a very high goal: free and responsible development of the individual, so that he may place his powers freely and gladly in the service of all mankind.
The pursuit of recognition for their own sake, an almost fanatical love of justice and the quest for personal independence form the traditional themes of the Jewish people, of which I am a member.
But if one holds these high principles clearly before one's eyes and compares them with the life and spirit of our times, then it is glaringly apparent that mankind finds itself at present in grave danger. I see the nature of the current crises in the juxtaposition of the individual to society. The individual feels more than ever dependent on society, but he feels this dependence not in the positive sense — cradled, connected as part of an organic. He sees it as a threat to his natural rights and even his economic existence. His position in society, then, is such that that which drives his ego is encouraged and developed, and that which would drive him toward other men (a weak impulse to begin with) is left to atrophy.
It is my belief that there is only one way to eliminate these evils, namely, the establishment of a planned economy coupled with an education geared towards social goals. Alongside the development of individual abilities, the education of the individual aspires to revive an ideal that is geared towards the service of our fellow man, and that needs to take the place of the glorification of power and outer success.
Translation by David Domine. Essay courtesy of the Albert Einstein Archives at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.