Channel Assignment Schemes
Contributed by John S. Davis, II, U.C. Berkeley
One main issue in cellular system design reduces to one of economics. Essentially we have a limited resource transmission spectrum, that must be shared by several users. Unlike wired communications which benefits from isolation provided by cables, wireless users within close proximity of one another can cause significant interference to one another. To address this issue, the concept of cellular communications was introduced around in 1968 by researchers at AT&T Bell Labs. The basic concept being that a given geography is divided into polygons called cells.
Each cell is allocated a portion of the total frequency spectrum. As users move into a given cell, they are then permitted to utilize the channel allocated to that cell. The virtue of the cellular system is that different cells can use the same channel given that the cells are separated by a minimum distance according to the system propagation characteristics; otherwise, intercellular or cochannel interference occurs. The minimum distance necessary to reduce cochannel interference is called the reuse distance. The reuse distance is defined as the ratio of the distance, D, between cells that can use the same channel without causing interference and the cell radius, R. Note that R is the distance from the center of a cell to the outermost point of the cell in cases when the cells are not circular.
Channel allocation deals with the allocation of channels to cells in a cellular network. Once the channels are allocated, cells may then allow users within the cell to communicate via the available channels. Channels in a wireless communication system typically consist of time slots, frequency bands and/or CDMA pseudo noise sequences, but in an abstract sense, they can represent any generic transmission resource. There are three major categories for assigning these channels to cells (or base-stations). They are
- Fixed Channel Allocation,
- Dynamic Channel Allocation and
- Hybrid Channel Allocation which is a combination of the first two methods.
Fixed Channel Allocation
Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA) systems allocate specific channels to specific cells. This allocation is static and can not be changed. For efficient operation, FCA systems typically allocate channels in a manner that maximizes frequency reuse. Thus, in a FCA system, the distance between cells using the same channel is the minimum reuse distance for that system. The problem with FCA systems is quite simple and occurs whenever the offered traffic to a network of base stations is not uniform. Consider a case in which two adjacent cells are allocated N channels each. There clearly can be situations in which one cell has a need for N+k channels while the adjacent cell only requires N-m channels (for positive integers k and m). In such a case, k users in the first cell would be blocked from making calls while m channels in the second cell would go unused. Clearly in this situation of non-uniform spatial offered traffic, the available channels are not being used efficiently. FCA has been implemented on a widespread level to date.
Dynamic Channel Allocation
Dynamic Channel Allocation (DCA) attempts to alleviate the problem mentioned for FCA systems when offered traffic is non-uniform. In DCA systems, no set relationship exists between channels and cells. Instead, channels are part of a pool of resources. Whenever a channel is needed by a cell, the channel is allocated under the constraint that frequency reuse requirements can not be violated. There are two problems that typically occur with DCA based systems.
- First, DCA methods typically have a degree of randomness associated with them and this leads to the fact that frequency reuse is often not maximized unlike the case for FCA systems in which cells using the same channel are separated by the minimum reuse distance.
- Secondly, DCA methods often involve complex algorithms for deciding which available channel is most efficient. These algorithms can be very computationally intensive and may require large computing resources in order to be real-time.
Hybrid Channel Allocation Schemes
The third category of channel allocation methods includes all systems that are hybrids of fixed and dynamic channel allocation systems. Several methods have been presented that fall within this category and in addition, a great deal of comparison has been made with corresponding simulations and analyses [Cox, Elnoubi, Jiang, Katzela, Yue, Zhang]. We will present several of the more developed hybrid methods below.
Channel Borrowing is one of the most straightforward hybrid allocation schemes. Here, channels are assigned to cells just as in fixed allocation schemes. If a cell needs a channel in excess of the channels previously assigned to it, that cell may borrow a channel from one of its neighboring cells given that a channel is available and use of this channel won't violate frequency reuse requirements. Note that since every channel has a predetermined relationship with a specific cell, channel borrowing (without the extensions mentioned below) is often categorized as a subclass of fixed allocation schemes. The major problem with channel borrowing is that when a cell borrows a channel from a neighboring cell, other nearby cells are prohibited from using the borrowed channel because of co-channel interference. This can lead to increased call blocking over time. To reduce this call blocking penalty, algorithms are necessary to ensure that the channels are borrowed from the most available neighboring cells; i.e., the neighboring cells with the most unassigned channels.
Two extensions of the channel borrowing approach are Borrowing with Channel Ordering (BCO) and Borrowing with Directional Channel Locking (BDCL).
- Borrowing with Channel Locking was designed as an improvement over the simpler Channel Borrowing approach as described above [Elnoubi]. BCO systems have two distinctive characteristics [Elnoubi]:
- The ratio of fixed to dynamic channels varies with traffic load.
- Nominal channels are ordered such that the first nominal channel of a cell has the highest priority of being applied to a call within the cell.
The last nominal channel is most likely to be borrowed by neighboring channels. Once a channel is borrowed, that channel is locked in the co-channel cells within the reuse distance of the cell in question. To be "locked" means that a channel can not be used or borrowed. Zhang and Yum [Zhang] presented the BDCL scheme as an improvement over the BCO method. From a frequency reuse standpoint, in a BCO system, a channel may be borrowed only if it is free in the neighboring cochannel cells. This criteria is often too strict.
- In Borrowing with Directional Channel Locking, borrowed channels are only locked in nearby cells that are affected by the borrowing. This differs from the BCO scheme in which a borrowed channel is locked in every cell within the reuse distance. The benefit of BDCL is that more channels are available in the presence of borrowing and subsequent call blocking is reduced. A disadvantage of BDCL is that the statement "borrowed channels are only locked in nearby cells that are affected by the borrowing" requires a clear understanding of the term "affected." This may require microscopic analysis of the area in which the cellular system will be located. Ideally, a system can be general enough that detailed analysis of specific propagation measurements is not necessary for implementation.
A natural extension of channel borrowing is to set aside a portion of the channels in a system as dynamic channels with the remaining (nominal) channels being fixed to specified cells. If a cell requires an extra channel, instead of borrowing the channel from a neighboring cell, the channel is borrowed from the common "bank" of dynamic channels. An important consideration in hybrid systems of this type is the ratio of dynamic channels to fixed channels. Analysis by Cox and Reudlink [Cox - 1973] showed that given ten channels per cell, an optimum ratio was 8 fixed channels and 2 dynamic channels. In general, the optimum ratio depends upon the traffic load [Zhang]. In addition to BDCL, a second channel allocation method was presented by Yum and Zhang [Zhang]. Referred to as Locally Optimized Dynamic Assignment Strategy (LODA), this method is best described as a purely dynamic channel allocation procedure as opposed to a hybrid method. In this strategy there are no nominal channels; all channels are dynamic. When a given cell needs to accommodate a call, it chooses from among the bank of available channels according to some cost criteria. The channel with minimum cost is assigned. In a general sense, the cost is a measure of the future blocking probability in the vicinity of the cell given that the candidate channel is assigned. A more detailed description of the cost function will be addressed below.
Dynamic Channel Reassignment
Similar to the goals of dynamic channel assignment is the process of Dynamic Channel Reassignment (DCR). Whereas a DCA scheme allocates a channel to an initial call or handover, a DCR system switches a cell's channel (that is currently being used) to another channel which is closer to the optimum according to frequency reuse or other cost criteria. Thus, for example, a user communicating with channel n may be switched to channel m during the middle of her/his call if channel m is a more efficient use of the available bandwidth from a frequency reuse point of view. Philosophically, DCR is equivalent to DCA.
Simulation and Comparison of Channel Allocation Schemes
A great deal of work is available comparing various realizations of channel allocation schemes [Cox, Elnoubi, Jiang, Katzela, Yue, Zhang]. In comparing performance, typical system metrics include blocking probability of new calls and blocking probability of handover calls. These metrics are written as functions of offered traffic (where the traffic may be written in a variety of forms). It is generally assumed that a blocked new call is preferred over a blocked hand-off call. The idea being that with a blocked hand-off, users are forced to terminate communication in the middle of their session. If this blocking happens at a particularly inopportune time, the results could be disastrous (e.g., business partners cut off in the middle of a vital negotiation). In the case of a blocked new call, at least the business negotiation hasn't started and the involved parties aren't interrupted. Blocking probability is an important metric throughout the field of queueing theory and in the case ofM/M/1 queues, the Erlang-B formula is often used for analysis of blocking probability. Because blocked calls can be very disconcerting, systems are typically designed to have blocking probabilities of no more than 1% or 2%. This is consistent with the assumption of small offered traffic loads.
Cox and Reudink were the first researchers to present published comparisons of different channel allocation schemes. Their comparison was based on simulation of an outdoor vehicular wireless communication system [Cox - 1971, Cox - 1972, Jakes]. The simulation divided a region into a grid of square cells. The movement of vehicles had a two dimensional normal distribution with 0 mean and 30 mph standard deviation in each of the two orthogonal directions. Poisson arrivals were assumed for the rate of calls per vehicle and call durations were assume to have a truncated normal distribution (truncated on the left at zero) with a "mean" 90 seconds (true mean of 103.5 seconds).
Cox and Reudink's study considered uniform and non-uniform distributions of spatial traffic. In the uniform case, all cells had approximately the same call arrival rate while in the non-uniform case, some cells had a significantly higher call arrival rate. With both the uniform and non-uniform spatial distributions, fixed channel allocation schemes were optimally matched so that the cells with the greatest numbers of calls had the greatest number of channels to deal with those calls. In both cases of uniform and non-uniform traffic, results showed that for low blocking probabilities, dynamic channel allocation schemes could handle more calls than fixed channel allocation schemes. More specifically, in the case of uniform traffic, the DCA approach outperformed the FCA approach when the blocking probability was lower than 10%. At a blocking probability of 1%, the DCA approach could handle over 10% more calls than the FCA approach. In the case of non-uniform traffic, the DCA approach outperformed FCA for blocking rates up to 60%. At a blocking rate of 1%, DCA could handle almost 70% more calls per cell than FCA. Cox and Reudink performed another comparison involving dynamic channel reassignment in [Cox - 1973]. In this hybrid procedure, the total number of available channels is broken into two groups: fixed and dynamic channels. When a cell requires a channel, it first searches for an available fixed channel that is preassigned to the cell. If none of the fixed channels are available, a dynamic channel is searched for from the common bank of dynamic channels. If this search is in vain, the call is blocked. When users who were assigned fixed channels end their calls, these freed fixed channels are then assigned to users in the same cell who are currently using dynamic channels. This frees the dynamic channel for future use and ensures that a large number of channels being used are the optimally-spaced, fixed channels. Results from Cox and Reudink's study of dynamic channel reassignment showed that channel use was increased by over 60% compared to fixed channel allocation for a blocking rate of 1%. This result corresponds to uniform offered traffic.
Zhang and Yum compared four channel assignment strategies [Zhang and Yum];
- Fixed Channel Assignment (FCA),
- Borrowing with Channel Ordering (BCO),
- Borrowing with Directional Channel Locking (BDCL) and
- Locally Optimized Dynamic Assignment (LODA).
With respect to uniform offered traffic, their results showed that BDCL had the lowest blocking probability followed by BCO, LODA and FCA. With non-uniform offered traffic, the relative performance of the four methods was the same with the exception that in this case, LODA performed better than BCO. It makes sense that the ordering for BDCL, BCO and FCA was as found. Indeed, BDCL was specifically designed as an improvement over BCO and BCO was designed as an improvement over FCA [Zhang, Elnoubi]. The fact that the performance of LODA varies under uniform versus non-uniform traffic is rather interesting however. The reason behind this phenomenon is that LODA provides optimal channel allocation only in local regions. Given non-uniform traffic which consists of dense regions in certain local areas, LODA will accommodate these regions of high traffic offering. However, in a global sense, the LODA algorithm will not necessarily provide the optimal allocation. With uniform offered traffic, LODA does not have any regions with peak traffic to optimize; i.e., no local regions within which the benefits of LODA can be realized. Furthermore, with respect to the entire region, the optimization is generally not optimal in a global sense. The result is that with uniform traffic, LODA does not have any advantage to offer over BCO. From the previous discussion we see that one general result of all of the comparisons is that dynamic channel allocation outperforms fixed channel allocation for low blocking rates (below 10% in most cases). Blocking rates above 1% or 2% are generally not tolerated. This is generally an accepted guideline throughout the telecommunications industry and we will adhere to this design constraint as well.
Common Principles of Channel Allocation Schemes
The large array of possible channel allocation systems can become cumbersome. However, all channel allocation methods operate under simple, common principles. Throughout this report we have touched on three points which an efficient channel allocation scheme should address:
- Channel allocation schemes must not violate minimum frequency reuse conditions.
- Channel allocation schemes should adapt to changing traffic conditions.
- Channel allocation schemes should approach (from above) the minimum frequency reuse constraints so as to efficiently utilize available transmission resources.
As the first requirement suggests, all channel allocation schemes adhere to condition 1. From a frequency reuse standpoint, a fixed channel allocation system distributes frequency (or other transmission) resources to the cells in an optimum manner; i.e., common channels are separated by the minimum frequency reuse distance. Thus, a fixed channel allocation scheme perfectly satisfies condition 3 as well. However, a fixed allocation scheme does not satisfy condition 2.
Philosophically, any dynamic channel allocation scheme will meet the requirements of all of the above three conditions to some degree. At the system architecture level dynamic channel allocation schemes may differ widely, but fundamentally, their only difference is in the degree to which they satisfy condition 3. Different DCA schemes attempt to satisfy condition 3 (in addition to conditions 1 and 2) by approaching the minimum frequency reuse constraint arbitrarily closely, and by doing so in as short a time period as possible. The above three conditions point to the fact that design of dynamic channel allocation schemes falls within the general class of optimization problems. Furthermore, since we can always assume that the available number of base stations is finite and the transmission resources will always be countable (due to FCC requirements if nothing else) then our problem can be reduced to the subclass of combinatorial optimization problems. As with all combinatorial optimization problems, there will exist a solution space and a cost function [Aarts & Korst]. A typical element of the solution space could be a particular layout of frequency channels among the base-stations. The cost function can be loosely characterized as the difference between the frequency reuse of an arbitrary solution and the frequency reuse of the optimized solution. The error associated with a non-optimized cost is realized as a future increased blocking probability or an otherwise unwarranted lack of channel availability. It is typically assumed that the solution to the wireless dynamic channel allocation problem is NP-complete [Yue, Cox - 1971]. The definition of np-completeness follows from the conjecture made in the late 1960's that there exists a class of combinatorial optimization problems of such inherent complexity that any algorithm, solving each instance of such a problem to optimality, requires a computational effort that grows superpolynomially with the size of the problem. In the case of dynamic channel allocation, the complexity is generally attributed to the required inclusion of cochannel interference in any analysis of dynamic channel allocation schemes [Yue]. The author is aware of one published article to date offering an analytical method (approximate) for calculating the performance of dynamic channel allocation [see Yue]. Recently, several approximation techniques have been proposed as methods for solving condition 3 of the dynamic channel allocation problem. In particular there has been interest in applying simulated annealing techniques [Duque-Anton] and neural network methods [Chan, Kunz, Funabiki] to dynamic channel allocation.
Channel and Base-Station Allocation Schemes
-  Chan, P. T. H., Palaniswami, M. & Everitt, D., "Neural Network-Based Dynamic Channel Assignment for Cellular Mobile Communication Systems," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 43, no. 2, May 1994.
-  Cox, D.C. and Reudink, D.O., "Dynamic Channel Assignment in High-Capacity Mobile Communications Systems," Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 50, no. 6, July-August 1971.
-  Cox, D.C. and Reudink, D.O., "Dynamic Channel Assignment in Two-Dimensional Large -Scale Mobile Radio Systems," Bell System Technical Journal, vol. 51, no. 7, September 1972.
-  Cox, D.C. and Reudink, D.O., "Increasing Channel Occupancy in Large-Scale Mobile Radio Systems: Dynamic Channel Reassignment," IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 21, no. 11, November 1973.
-  Duque-Anton, M., Kunz, D., & Ruber, B., "Channel Assignment for Cellular Radio Using Simulated Annealing," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 42, no. 1, February 1993.
-  Elnoubi, S. M., Singh, R., and Gupta, S.C., "A New Frequency Channel Assignment Algorithm in High Capacity Mobile Communication Systems," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 31, no. 3, August 1982.
-  Funabiki N. & Takefuji, Y., "A Neural Network Parallel Algorithm for Channel Assignment Problems in Cellular Radio Networks," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 41, no. 4, November 1992.
-  Gamst, A., "Homogeneous Distribution of Frequencies in a Regular Hexagonal Cell System," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 31, no. 3, August 1982.
-  Jakes, W. C., Micr wave Mobile Communication ns, IEEE Press: New Jersey, c. 1993.
-  Jiang, H. and Rappaport, S. S., "CBWL: A New Channel Assignment and Sharihng Method for Cellular Communication Systems," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 43., no. 2, May 1994.
-  Katzela, I., "Channel Assignment Schemes for Cellular Mobile Telecommunication Systems," Unpublished work, Columbia University, December 15, 1992.
-  Kunz, D., "Channel Assignment for Cellular Radio Using Neural Networks," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 40, no. 1, February 1991.
-  Yue, W., "Analytical Methods to Calculate the Performance of a Cellular Mobile Radio Communication with Hybrid Channel Assignment," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 40, now. 2, May 1991.
-  Zhang, M. and Yum, TS. P., "Comparisons of Channel-Assignment Strategies in Cellular Mobile Telephone Systems", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 38, no. 4, November 1989.
-  Aarts, E. and Korst, J., Simulated Annealing and Boltzmann Machines: A Stochastic Approach to Combinatorial Optimization and Neural Computing, John Wiley & Sons: Chichester, c. 1989.
-  Garey, M. R. & Johnson, D. S., Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness, W. H. Freeman and Company: New York, c. 1979.
Try you luck as a frequency assigner in the Dynamic Channel Allocation game.
JPL's Wireless Communication Reference Website � John S. Davis, II and 1993, 1995.
There are mainly three types of channel allocation 1-fixed channel allocation 2- dynamic channel allocation 3-Hybrid channel allocation fIn radio resource management for wireless and cellular networks, channel allocation schemes allocate bandwidth and communication channels to base stations, access points and terminal equipment. The objective is to achieve maximum system spectral efficiency in bit/s/Hz/site by means of frequency reuse, but still assure a certain grade of service by avoiding co-channel interference and adjacent channel interference among nearby cells or networks that share the bandwidth.
Channel-allocation schemes follow one of two types of strategy:
- Fixed: FCA, fixed channel allocation: manually assigned by the network operator
- DCA, dynamic channel allocation
- DFS, dynamic frequency selection
- Spread spectrum
Static Channel Allocation
In Fixed Channel Allocation or Fixed Channel Assignment (FCA) each cell is given a predetermined set of frequency channels. FCA requires manual frequency planning, which is an arduous task in TDMA and FDMA based systems since such systems are highly sensitive to co-channel interference from nearby cells that are reusing the same channel. Another drawback with TDMA and FDMA systems with FCA is that the number of channels in the cell remains constant irrespective of the number of customers in that cell. This results in traffic congestion and some calls being lost when traffic gets heavy in some cells, and idle capacity in other cells.
If FCA is combined with conventional FDMA and perhaps or TDMA, a fixed number of voice channels can be transferred over the cell. A new call can only be connected by an unused channel. If all the channel are occupied than the new call is blocked in this system. There are however several dynamic radio-resource management schemes that can be combined with FCA. A simple form is traffic-adaptive handover threshold, implying that calls from cell phones situated in the overlap between two adjacent cells can be forced to make the handover to the cell with the lowest load for the moment. If FCA is combined with spread spectrum, the maximum number of channels is not fixed in theory, but in practice a maximum limit is applied, since too many calls would cause too high co-channel interference level, causing the quality to be problematic. Spread spectrum allows cell breathing to be applied, by allowing an overloaded cell to borrow capacity (maximum number of simultaneous calls in the cell) from a nearby cell that is sharing the same frequency.
FCA can be extended into a DCA system by using a borrowing strategy in which a cell can borrow channels from the neighboring cell which is supervised by Mobile Switching Center (MSC).
Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) may be applied in wireless networks with several adjacent non-centrally controlled access points. The access points automatically select frequency channels with low interference levels. DFS is supported by the IEEE 802.11hwireless local area network standard. DFS is also mandated in the 5470-5725 MHz U-NII band for radar avoidance.
Dynamic Channel Allocation
A more efficient way of channel allocation would be Dynamic Channel Allocation or Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA) in which voice channel are not allocated to cell permanently, instead for every call request base station request channel from MSC. The channel is allocated following an algorithm which accounts the following criteria:
- Future blocking probability in neighboring cells and Reuse distance
- Usage frequency of the candidate channel
- Average blocking probability of the overall system
- Instantaneous channel occupancy distribution
It requires the MSC to collect real time data on channel occupancy, traffic distribution and Received Signal Strength Indications (RSSI). DCA schemes are suggested for TDMA/FDMA based cellular systems such as GSM, but are currently not used in any products.OFDMA systems, such as the downlink of 4G cellular systems, can be considered as carrying out DCA for each individual sub-carrier as well as each timeslot.
DCA can be further classified into centralized and distributed. Some of the centralized DCA schemes are:
- First available (FA): the first available channel satisfying reuse distance requirement is assigned to the call
- Locally optimized dynamic assignment (LODA): cost function is based on the future blocking probability in the neighboring cells
- Selection with maximum usage on the reuse ring (RING): a candidate channel is selected which is in use in the most cells in the co-channel set
DCA and DFS eliminate the tedious manual frequency planning work. DCA also handles bursty cell traffic and utilizes the cellular radio resources more efficiently. DCA allows the number of channels in a cell to vary with the traffic load, hence increasing channel capacity with little costs.
Spread spectrum can be considered as an alternative to complex DCA algorithms. Spread spectrum avoids cochannel interference between adjacent cells, since the probability that users in nearby cells use the same spreading code is insignificant. Thus the frequency channel allocation problem is relaxed in cellular networks based on a combination of spread spectrum and FDMA, for example IS95 and 3G systems. Spread spectrum also facilitate that centrally controlled base stations dynamically borrow resources from each other depending on the traffic load, simply by increasing the maximum allowed number of simultaneous users in one cell (the maximum allowed interference level from the users in the cell), and decreasing it in an adjacent cell. Users in the overlap between the base station coverage area can be transferred between the cells (called cell-breathing), or the traffic can be regulated by admission control and traffic-shaping.
However, spread spectrum gives lower spectral efficiency than non-spread spectrum techniques, if the channel allocation in the latter case is optimized by a good DCA scheme. Especially OFDM modulation is an interesting alternative to spread spectrum because of its ability to combat multipath propagation for wideband channels without complex equalization. OFDM can be extended with OFDMA for uplink multiple access among users in the same cell. For avoidance of inter-cell interference, FDMA with DCA or DFS is once again of interest. One example of this concept is the above mentioned IEEE 802.11h standard. OFDM and OFDMA with DCA is often studied as an alternative for 4G wireless systems.
DCA on a packet-by-packet basis
In packet based data communication services, the communication is bursty and the traffic load rapidly changing. For high system spectrum efficiency, DCA should be performed on a packet-by-packet basis. Examples of algorithms for packet-by-packet DCA are Dynamic Packet Assignment (DPA), Dynamic Single Frequency Networks (DSFN) and Packet and resource plan scheduling (PARPS).
- ^Guowang Miao, Jens Zander, Ki Won Sung, and Ben Slimane, Fundamentals of Mobile Data Networks, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 1107143217, 2016.
- ^"5GHz agreement". Ntia.doc.gov. 2003-01-31. Retrieved 2012-08-29.