Indicating the Relevant Reference in the Text
• A number in superscript format, placed in the text of the essay, indicates the relevant reference.
• Citations are numbered consecutively in the order in which they appear in the text and each citation corresponds to a numbered reference, containing publication information about the source cited, in the reference list at the end of the publication, essay or assignment.
• Once a source has been cited, the same number is used in all subsequent references.
• No distinction is made between print and electronic references when citing within the text.
• Here are some examples of this kind of referencing :
The largest lesion in the first study was 10 cm.13
The theory was first put forward in 1987.1
Scholtz2 has argued that...
Several recent studies3,4,15,16 have suggested that...
For example, see 7.
• It is not necessary to mention either the author(s) or the date of the reference unless it is relevant to your text.
• It is not necessary to say "In reference26 ...", "In26 ..." is sufficient.
Citing More Than One Reference at a Time
When citing more than one source at a time, the preferred method is to list each reference number separately with a comma or dash (without spaces) between each reference:
Including page numbers
Page number references are rarely included when citing within the text of an assignment or essay when using Vancouver style; however, for quotations or if you wish to be specific regarding the source of information, quotations or statistics, page or figure numbers may be given in the following format:
Westman5(pp3-5),9 reported 8 cases where vomiting occurred.
These patients showed no sign of nausea.3(p21),4
The incidence of the syndrome was rare.12(fig4)
If you want to cite different page numbers from a single reference source at different places in your text, the page numbers are included in the superscript citation and the source appears only once in the list of references. The superscript may include more than one page number, the citation of more than one reference, or both; and all spaces are closed up.
Direct quotations are rarely, if ever, used in Vancouver Style.
You should include the page number in the superscript in-text citation when directly quoting the exact wording of a source, please see the section above regarding the formatting of page numbers included in citations.
Short direct quotes are enclosed within quotation marks.
For example: "The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as ‘big data’, provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care".1(p433)
Quotes longer than 4 lines should be indented in a block, without quotation marks and in reduced type.
With the increased need to store data and information generated by big projects, computational solutions, such as cloud-based computing, have emerged. Cloud computing is the only storage model that can provide the elastic scale needed for DNA sequencing, whose rate of technology advancement could now exceed Moore's Law. Moore's law is the observation that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on integrated circuits and the speed of computers doubles approximately every 2 years. Although cloud solutions from different companies have been used, several challenges remain, particularly related to the security and privacy of personal medical and scientific data.1(p437)
In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.
Author's name in parentheses:
One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).
Author's name part of narrative:
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic.
Group as author:
First citation: (American Psychological Association [APA], 2015)
Subsequent citation: (APA, 2015)
Multiple works: (separate each work with semi-colons)
Research shows that listening to a particular accent improves comprehension of accented speech in general (Gass & Varonis, 1984; Krech Thomas, 2004).
Direct quote: (include page number)
One study found that “the listener's familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85).
Gass and Varonis (1984) found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (p. 85).
Note: For direct quotations of more than 40 words, display the quote as an indented block of text without quotation marks and include the authors’ names, year, and page number in parentheses at the end of the quote. For example:
This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension. (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 77)