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|Position Papers||"the horses" by edwin muir||"The Horses" is a poem by Edwin Muir. It tells the story of a world ravaged by nuclear war, where the few survivors live hopelessly in a desolate reality. Their outlook is changed by the arrival of the horses, a relic of the past which lets them rediscover humanity's bond with nature. "The Horses", as well as being a very beautiful and moving poem, has a...|
|Position Papers||"touch wood" by renÃ©e roth-hano||³Touch Wood² is based on the author¹s own life when she was growing as a Jewish girl during the German invasion of France. In 1940, Renée and her family were living in Alsace, France, where nothing ever changed. No one expected anything unusual to happen. Then one day, a war with Germany is announced on the radio. The Germans wanted to annex Alsace ...|
|Position Papers||Hyperkinetic children||Hyperkinetic Children Hyperkinetic is just another word for Hyperactive. Hyperactivity describes children who show numerous amounts of inappropriate behaviors in situations that require sustained attention and orderly responding to fairly structured tasks. Humans who are hyperactive tend to be easily distracted, impulsive, inattentive, and easily excited or upset. Hyperactivity in ch...|
|Position Papers||I felt like teo||I felt like Teo by Kevin Runion We all remember that one shinning day in our lives, that day that Michael Jackson and Lisa Marie Presley tied the knot. Yet, we all somehow knew that this relationship was never going to make it, and guess what folks, it didn't. Yes, Mr. Jackson's affair has been exposed, although we ar...|
|Position Papers||I head the own call my name - analytical essay||Although the Indians in I Heard The Owl Call My Name, and in The Black Robe are primitive in the technological sense, they are neither simple or emotional people. The Indians in both texts could be classed as primitive people - if we take primitive to mean technologically underdeveloped. The level of technology possessed by the white man is far superior to that of the Indians, yet the Indi...|
|Position Papers||I know the secret||I Know the Secret! It is a sickening sight for a magician to look out into his audience and see one of his spectators nudging and pointing when he does his famous sleight. These people who are so delighted that they have figured out a trick that this plodding magician has worked on takes a little spirit and fun from everyone. They expose and make rumors of how a certain trick or illus...|
|Position Papers||I, madman||This is no fantasy. This is no fallacious delusion of a sick, twisted mind. This is the honest-to-God truth. I love horror novels. Stephen King and Edgar Allen Poe are my idols. Perhaps having these two, demented madmen as my personal mentors sounds sick, but I tend to think as they do. Most of my writings are short stories of horror (usually about the length of Poe's "The ...|
|Position Papers||Iago's motivation||Iago's Motivation Iago is a "moral pyromaniac." Harold C. Goddard writes that Iago consciously and unconsciously seeks to destroy the lives of others, especially others with high moral standards (Goddard 76). However, Iago is more than just a "moral pyromaniac," he is a moral pyromaniac whose fire is fueled by pure hatred. He is a hungry powermonger whose appetite for destruction...|
|Position Papers||Ibsens 'doll house'||"A Doll's House" is classified under the "second phase" of Henrik Ibsen's career. It was during this period which he made the transition from mythical and historical dramas to plays dealing with social problems. It was the first in a series investigating the tensions of family life. Written during the Victorian era, the controversial play featuring a female protagonist seeking individuali...|
|Position Papers||Ideologies||Ideologies Schools and Churches are institutions in society where priests and teachers act as spokespersons to spread a certain set of attitudes, beliefs and values. Similarly, Hollywood is also a very powerful modern day institution, where a star's image can reappropriate, shape and circulate societal myths and ideologies. The construction of a star's image as a commodity of their societ...|
|Position Papers||If at first you don't succeed||If At First You Don't Succeed "Eureka!" Sam excitedly exclaimed. "I've done it! I'm set for life and my happiness is assured. With this new invention I'll be honored for my brilliance, and I might even win the nobel prize!" he chirped ecstatically. Sam was a chicken, the great great great grandson of the Not-So-Great Chixken Little, who, in ca...|
|Position Papers||Iliad||An Examination of Similes in the Iliad - and how homers use of them affected the story In the Iliad, Homer finds a great tool in the simile. Just by opening the book in a random place the reader is undoubtedly faced with one, or within a few pages. Homer seems to use everyday activities, at least for the audience, his fellow Greeks, in these similes nearly exclusively. When one is confronted w...|
|Position Papers||Illness||Illness Ryan Thompson 4th Hour Miss Howard November 7, 1996 During times of illness there is certain things one cannot bring themselves to do. Everyone has had one of these times. That time for me is right now. As i have been diagnosed with bronchitis and tonsillitis it is very difficult to concentrate on the computer screen when the medicine you take makes you nauseous....|
|Position Papers||Illusion and reality in a streetcar named desire||#6 - Illusion and Reality Is illusion necessary to life? Discuss the role of illusion in the play. I believe that illusion is not necessary to everyone"s life but rather it helps them to avoid the harsh realities that they may have to deal with in their lives. I also believe that a major theme of this play was how our lives can often experience a fierce battle between these illusi...|
|Position Papers||Illustration essay -1||Our nation is in dire financial straits. However, the nation's situation is only a reflection of our personal failures in our inability to "Just Say No" to ourselves. We must have everything and we must have everything now. We have become a country of consumers instead of a populace of producers. Let's face it, too many families are drowning in debt. We are spoiled. No one wants to wai...|
|Position Papers||Imagery in jane eyre||Jane Eyre tells the story of a woman progressing on the path towards acceptance. Throughout her journey, Jane comes across many obstacles. Male dominance proves to be the biggest obstacle at each stop of Jane's journey: Gateshead Hall, Lowood Institution, Thornfield Manor, Moor House, and Ferndean Manor. Through the progression of the story, Jane slowly learns how to understand and control he...|
|Position Papers||Imagery in literature||Imagery is writing that appeals to one or more of the five senses. Imagery is frequently written using similes, metaphors or personification. Many writers use imagery to convey a picture without saying directly what the image is. This style of writing adds a unique mystery to the poem or story. Imagery is best used in nature, but it can also be used for describing inanimate objects. Many ...|
|Position Papers||Images of mac beth||How does the play"s Imagery help us to understand its themes and characters? For me to answer this essay question I must first find out what exactly imagery is, to do this I used an Oxford dictionary and this is the definition; Imagery n. Images collectively; statuary, carving; mental images collectively; ornate figurative illustration, esp. as used by author for particular effect....|
|Position Papers||Imagination in morte d' arthur||IMAGINATION IN MORTE D' ARTHUR A recurring theme in Sir Thomas Malory"s Morte d" Arthur is the use of imaginative descriptions of characters and settings. Imagination is what the reader of the story must use to form his or her own mental images of a situation, and the better the storyteller is, the clearer the mental image. His descriptions, ranging from horrific to chivalro...|
|Position Papers||Immortality||Immortality - (a) the quality or state of being immortal. (b) never ending existence. Although that is the Webster definition of immortality, what is never-ending existence? That question has a different answer for everyone. Some people believe that never-ending existence happens by never physically dying, and others believe that immortality can be obtained through your children. I per...|
|Position Papers||In an oldster's mind||In An Oldster"s Mind Crowd and noise always interrupt my mind in the TV room. I desire someone to take me back to my private room. I want to be alone and think about my personal things. I appreciate that a nurse helping me to go back my room. Along the hallway, I look straight forward and do nothing like a plant. What factor causes the plant to move? I turn my head as if I have seen my frie...|
|Position Papers||In contempt book report, book written by chris darden||TITLE This report is based upon the book In Contempt, written by Christopher A. Darden with Jess Walter. This book is published by Regan Books an imprint of Harper Collins Publishers and is copyrighted 1996 by Christopher A. Darden. Introduction of the Author The book In Contempt was written by Christopher A. Darden. Chris Darden is famous for being one of the prosecuting atto...|
|Position Papers||In dubious battle||In Dubious Battle it was the culmination of events such as the lowering of wages, unsafe equipment and unsanitary living conditions which finally motivated the workers to use their power to strike. Torgas valley was in the hands of the Growers Association, who by virtue of ownership of the orchards also held power. In our culture the suspicion that life can be unfair presents a cloud of injus...|
|Position Papers||In living color||In Living Color Everything people eat, wear, or use is pushed at the public through commercial advertising. Whether it is the fertilizer that the farmer chooses to put on the vegetables he grows, the clothing that is chosen at the department store, or the pen to write a report, it has been advertised. Advertising occurs even in the packaging of a product. From the colors the manufacturer ...|
|Position Papers||In short||IN SHORT It all started not so long ago. In fact, though I can't be completely sure about it, I think it was only five months ago. My name is Jeff Washburn and I am a surgeon. Not that long ago my life under went a huge change. Unfortunately a huge misfortune had to take place first. Not that long ago, I had a terrible thing happen to me. A misfortune led ...|
|Position Papers||In the heat of the night||Response Journal: 1 In The Heat Of The Night Vocabulary Word: Corpse (noun) - A deceased being. Vocabulary Sentence: When they arrived, Jane screamed, she was the first one to notice, the corpse laying on the ground. Response: This was a very interesting first chapter to this book, that really tells a lot. It starts off in a small town called Wells. You can tell Wells, is ...|
|Position Papers||Indian suffrage||Â· Indian Suffrage Before the English arrived in the New world and began creating colonies, the American Indians lived in harmony and peace with natures. The American Indians were skilled hunters, farmers and used everything in their environment for survival or for essential necessities. They shared the land together and moved about freely in search of food. The American Indians never c...|
|Position Papers||Indians and there sacred lands||Question: Does the white man attempt to care for or respect the earth? Claim: Indians share common thoughts on different aspects of the earth on how the white man does not care for or respect it. From the beginning of time, we have been in confrontation with the American Indians. In most of the confrontations the white man is to blame. From the beginning we have been trying to take advantage...|
|Position Papers||Individual retirement account||Individual Retirement Accounts: Why bother? by William K. English 121 Mr. Frost September 22, 1996 Outline Thesis: When planning for retirement, Individual Retirement Accounts offer several benefits; however, careful planning is essential to ensure that: upon retirement there is an adequate amount of money saved, that the heirs to the IRA are chosen carefull...|
|Position Papers||Individualism and belonnging to the family||Individualism and Belonging to the Family Anne Tyler's novels The Accidental Tourist and Searching for Caleb are concerned with the family and individualism. In the Accidental Tourist each character undergoes a transformation between individualism and belonging to his family. Individualism means isolation, while family means belonging. Searching for Caleb shows how rules can govern...|
|Position Papers||Inform- yes or no||Inform: Yes or No? 33-year-old Jesse Timmendequas lured 7-year-old Megan Kanka in to his house in Hamilton Township, NJ. Shortly after, Megan was strangled to death and raped. Jesse was living in a half way house and was on parole after his second sex offense. Mrs. Kanka feels that she as well as the other neighbors should have been notified about the fact that a repeat sex offender was b...|
|Position Papers||Inherit the wind||Essay on Inherit the Wind Dear members of the jury, I am here today to undo the wrong on behalf of this man. He was charged because he was thought to have taught religion in his grade 11 English class. But the question really is if he did teach religion to his class. Of course not! He knew the rules and regulations of th...|
|Position Papers||Innate good or evil||Man is innately good, but has the ability to be evil. I believe that a majority of people do what they believe to be right. Whether they are correct or not is another matter. In order to be truly evil, I believe that one has to purposely, consciously, try to hurt others. Be it physically or mentally, a conscious effort to injure others is for no obvious benifit to the human race is...|
|Position Papers||Innocence lost||William Blake"s "The Chimney Sweeper" offers a graphic portrayal of a particular cultural aspect of England in the 1790s. By examining my interactions with the poem, I will attempt to analyse and contrast my own belief system against that which is presented in the text. Blake"s poem was initially very striking to me. While reading the first stanza, I was shocked and horrified by the imagery ...|
|Position Papers||Innocense of a child||The Innocence Of The Child Many writers have found writing about the human psyche very interesting. The story, "The Child by Tiger", by Thomas Wolf, is about an African American servant who initially seems to be very skilful and moral but who turns out to be very vengeful, eventually running around, shooting up the town. People can have a hidden side to them which can be brought out by th...|
|Position Papers||Insights into the handmaids tale||Society's Views on Family Values and Children as Reflected in the novel The Handmaid's Tale In the olden days, religion and politics went hand in hand. The church either ran the land or had a strangle hold on the people. If the church thought there was one way to do something, one had to do as the church requested or suffer great penalty. To go against the church was to go ag...|
|Position Papers||Instilling a child's values||Instilling a Child"s Values Some people think that a child learns only by what his or her parents teach them, while others believe that a child is born with a set of values. In actuality, a child"s values are mostly determined by the things they are taught by their parents. As parents, couples have many responsibilities toward their child; the most important responsibility is teaching ...|
|Position Papers||Intellect||inÂ·telÂ·lect 'int-Â¶l-,ect n [ L intellectus , fr. intellect-, intellegere to understand ] 1 a: the power of knowing b: the capacity for thought esp. when highly developed 2 a: a person of notable intellect - Websters New World dictionary. "Intellect is and always will be of high statue. At least it should be" Intellect, in raw form, is the power of knowing. The intelle...|
|Position Papers||Intellegence||Jon Smith Period 8 English 12 February 12, 1997 Intellegence It all started in the interesting city of New York. The smog ridden streets were filled with people. On a quiet little street corner, there was a small shop owned by Harvey Goldstein. Mr. Goldstein was a well-to-do merchant. He traded in all sorts of imports, and was generally a moral man. He did not buy goods fr...|
|Position Papers||Interactive television||Interactive Television Technology is now innovating new ways to view information. Technologies that once existed by themselves are now coming together as one. Television, communication, and computer industries are merging their technologies, and the result is interactive television. Large corporations are betting that if interactive television is offered to the public at a reasonable pr...|
|Position Papers||Internal combustion engine||INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE INTRODUCTION Internal Combustion Engine, a heat engine in which the fuel is burned ( that is, united with oxygen ) within the confining space of the engine itself. This burning process releases large amounts of energy, which are transformed into work through the mechanism of the engine. This type of engine different from the steam engine, which process with an...|
|Position Papers||Interpretation- romeo and juliet||Interpretation: Romeo and Juliet What would cause young lovers to mysteriously commit suicide so they can be together? Is it their parents who forbid them to see one another, or is it themselves? William Shakespeare's play, Romeo and Juliet, tells about two young "star-crossed lovers" whose deaths were caused by fate, not their parents or themselves. First o...|
|Position Papers||Interpreting edith wharton's 'roman fever'||18 September 1996 Interpreting Edith Wharton's "Roman Fever" Definitive criteria for judging the success or failure of a work of fiction are not easily agreed upon; individuals almost necessarily introduce bias into any such attempt. Only those who affect an exorbitantly refined artistic taste, however, would deny the importance of poignancy in literary pieces. To be sure, writings of dubi...|
|Position Papers||Invisible man - ralph ellison||In Ralph Ellison's novel, Invisible Man, the main character goes through many situations trying to discover himself. The main character, the narrator, thinks that he is a very important person. He thinks that his ideas will put an end to all the racial stereotypes in the world. The narrator does not realize that he is virtually nonexistent to everyone. The narrator goes through three state...|
|Position Papers||Invitation||Jan. 30, 1997 Eric Tang 97 Benson Street 2nd Floor Albany, NY 12203 USA Mr. and Mrs. Qifan Tang School of Management Fudan University Shanghai, P.R. China 200433 Dear parents, It has been almost seven years when I last saw mother in Shanghai. I miss you very much. As you know, I am graduating from the State University of New York at Albany this May. I would like to i...|
|Position Papers||Iron man||Iron Man What is a man without morals? What is a man who does not care about what is right, but what is popular. A man with no morals is a poor man indeed. Atticus Finch is none of these. In Harper Lee"s To Kill A Mockingbird Atticus is the only man in town he would defend a black man. He would not let his children fight and he did not care about public opinion. Atticus does not ...|
|Position Papers||Ironic sketches of a little town||Ironic Sketches of a Little Town It takes a certain type of character to see the humour in everyday life. It takes an even greater character to express the humour in ways that other people can appreciate and subsequently find gaiety therein. Stephen Leacock is such a character, and his compilation of short stories Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town recognizes, and assists the reader to rec...|
|Position Papers||Irony||Paper on Irony As children we make many idle threats and angry promises, never realizing the impact they could bestow upon our lives. At the age of fifteen I learned that lesson the hard way. The words my mother and I had exchanged during common adolescent--parent confrontations were now my reality. I had no parent figure in my life, and I was on my own. ...|
|Position Papers||Is hamlet mad||Perhaps the world's most famous mental patient, Hamlet's sanity has been argued over by countless learned scholars for hundreds of years. As a mere student of advanced-level English Literature, I doubt I can add anything new to the debate in 2000 words, but I can look at the evidence supporting or dispelling each argument and come to my own conclusion. Hamlet is obviously experiencing grief...|
|Position Papers||Is more than one cause of aids possible||Is More Than One Cause of AIDS Possible? "The HIV establishment and its journalist allies have replied to various specific criticisms of the HIV theory without taking them seriously. They have never provided an authoritative paper that undertakes to prove that HIV really is the cause of AIDS.... After ten years of failure, it is time to take a second look." -Charles A. Thomas, Jr., Ka...|
|Position Papers||Isn't it ironic||Isn=t it Ironic? Although I am generally content with my meager day-to-day existence, there are a few days when I feel that I might as well have not been born. These are the days when I feel like asking the world" "Why is this happening to me?" These are the same days Alanis Morissette denounces in her aptly named song "Ironic" However, despite the verbal lyrics, there is an over...|
|Position Papers||It is based on the quote 'if human beings are evil, then how||This is my Essay. If human beings are evil, then they can easily appoint themselves as judges, and from their point of view, the decisions they make are moral. These judges try to make themselves look better, by lowering the criminal below their level. These moral judges also try to play God, by selecting, and if they have enough power, executing their decision as a punishment for the crime...|
|Position Papers||The breakdown and rebuilding of south african society within the novel cry, the beloved country||The Breakdown and Rebuilding of South African Society within the novel Cry, The Beloved Country "...what God has not done for South Africa man must do." (25) In the novel Cry, The Beloved Country, written by Alan Paton, some major conflicts follow the story from beginning to end. Two of these conflicts would be as follows; the breakdown of the tribal community and the po...|
|Position Papers||The case for christianity, the world's last night||I. Introduction II. Brief Biographical Information III. The Case for Christianity - Right and Wrong as a Clue to the Meaning of the Universe IV. The Problem with Pain - Divine Omnipotence V. The World's Last Night - The Efficacy of Prayer VI. Conclusion A Critique of C. S. Lewis ...|
|Position Papers||The case of the elusive car salesman||I was pacing around Lexington, waiting for my local mechanic to finish the latest repairs on my "77 Chevy Impala. My name's Yesterday, Sam Yesterday. It was hot in Lexington, by that is not uncommon for mid-July. I'd had a good several months, and I was in good financial position for the first time since I bought that Impala back in 1977. That car had served me well, but lately...|
|Position Papers||The characters from a tale of two cities||List of Characters For A Tale of Two Cities Lucie Manette - A young woman from France who grew up in England. She was raised as a child of Tellson's Bank when her parents were thought to be dead. She is kind and loving. Doctor Manette - Lucie's father who is a scientist. He"s been jail in the Bastille for eighteen years, this hurt his mental health. But he is still a g...|
|Position Papers||The chrysanthemums||1. The Chrysanthemums On Henry Allen's ranch east of Salinas Elisa plants yellow chrysanthemums as Henry is selling thirty head of cattle to agents of the Western Meat Company. After he and Scotty go to round up the...|
|Position Papers||The color purple||The Struggle to Express Themselves A Struggle to Express Themselves There is one primordial reason why we do not doubt Europeans have taken the lead in history, in all epochs before and after 1492, and it has little to do with evidence. It is a basic belief which we inherit from prior ages of thought and scarcely realize that we hold: it is an implicit belief, no...|
|Position Papers||The connection of god and nature in bryant's thanatopsis||The Connection of God and Nature in Bryant"s "Thanatopsis" "Thanatopsis", by William Cullen Bryant says that nature tells us different things at different times. When we are having good times, God and nature attribute to that. When we are having bad times, God and nature are willing to help us through our problems. In this poem, Bryant makes a connection between God and Nature ...|
|Position Papers||The dark romantics||The dark Romantics describe life as evil, sinful, insane, and deceptive, which is more like life today. For example, the town"s people in the "Black Veil" can be seen as evil and sinful. The reason they are thought as evil and sinful is because they say things about him because he is wearing the black veil. This can be seen in Hawthorns the minister and the Black veil when Mr. Hooper says, ...|
|Position Papers||The dark side of hawthorne||﻿ The Dark Side of Hawthorne In The House of the Seven Gables, Nathaniel Hawthorne exhibits the fate of a family due to a curse by analyzing the most "disagreeable" secrets of a man"s soul (Great Lives 1077). Hawthorne shows the decay of an aristocratic family due to the sins of the past. He uses allegory within his character"s personalities and em...|
|Position Papers||The demon||THE DEMON BLACK The transition of being a black man in a time just after slavery was a hard one. A black man had to prove himself at the same time had to come to terms with the fact that he would never amount to much in a white dominated country. Some young black men did actually make it but it was a long and bitter road. Most young men fell into the same trappings as the narrator"s brother...|
|Position Papers||The divine secrets of the ya ya sisterhood||Rebecca Wells paints a picture of the various roles that women often must encounter in their lives: mother, daughter, friend. As said by Charlotte Observer "She [Wells] speaks eloquently to what it means to be a mother, a daughter, a wife-and somehow, at last, a person." Wells uses a captivating style to create a simple plot, memorable symbolism and a reoccurring theme of friendship. The...|
|Position Papers||The downfall of young goodman brown||"Young Goodman Brown", by Nathaniel Hawthorne, is a story that is thick with allegory. "Young Goodman Brown" is a moral story which is told through the perversion of a religious leader. In "Young Goodman Brown", Goodman Brown is a Puritan minister who lets his excessive pride in himself interfere with his relations with the community after he meets wit...|
|Position Papers||The early history of golf in the us||The game of golf is one of the oldest of today"s modern sports. Its exact beginnings are not known; however, some historians trace golf back to the Stone Age while others claim it originated from the "idle antics of shepherd boys knocking small stones into holes in the ground with a crook while their flocks grazed nearby" (Peper 1). Researched back to the time of the Roman Empire, it is also bel...|
|Position Papers||The end||The Red Badge of Courage Literary Critique The Red Badge of Courage begins with the Youth (Henry) preparing to leave to war. He has fabulous ideas concocted in his mind about victory and heroism. The Youth soon finds that victory and heroism are a small part in the splendor of war. The Youth's mind soon becomes burdened with thoughts of death and running away from battle. Sure enou...|
|Position Papers||The fall of willy loman||The Fall of Willy Loman Willy Loman was a man who gradually destroyed himself with false hopes and beliefs. Throughout his entire life Willy believed that he would die a rich and successful man. It was inevitable for him to come crumbling down after years of disillusions. We can look at Willy"s life by examining some of his character traits that brought him down. Charley once said to Wil...|
|Position Papers||The fat cow complex||It"s mid-June. I graduated a few days earlier and here I am sitting nervously on a bench outside Lane Bryant, staring at the gate It"s my first job interview ever. I"m nervous as hell. I must have dried my hands fifty times on my dress but they"re still sticky with sweat. A woman comes to the front and opens the gate. She asks my name, I tell her. She nods, smiles, shakes my hand, introduce...|
|Position Papers||The first seven years||Growing and learning is a part of life that no one is exempt from. This fact influences everyone, whether it be a young child learning to share or an old man learning to let go. Feld, in The First Seven Years, finds that he has to let go of several of his own issues to allow his daughter to undergo her own growth and learning. Feld is the typical father, he wants only the best for...|
|Position Papers||The fish||Brad M. Rader English 1100 Section 124 Dr. Gene Miller March 10, 2000 "The Fish" Poems to me are an expression of a person"s outlook on a particular scene or subject. By reading a poem a person can be enlightened and take an understanding of what they are actually reading. In "The Fish", I personally was caught up in all the excitement because I know what it feels like to catch a...|
|Position Papers||The forbidden paw||The Forbidden Paw Once, a very long time ago there was a crazy family that decided to go on vacation to Manakesh, Morocco. "What a dump! Why would Princess Grace live in a place like this?", the father asked in a curious way. "Dad, that"s Monaco.", the daughter replied with quite an annoyed tone to her voice. The family continued walking through the market, they ...|
|Position Papers||The frying pan||The metaphors that Conrad Hilberry stated in his poem "The Frying Pan", expressed some of the feelings that some women encounter throughout their life. In this poem I believe that Hilberry related this poem to a female that was in a relationship with a very controlling guy. In the first stanza it says "I am another long-necked girl with the same face.", a girl that has the same f...|
|Position Papers||The glass cieling||The "glass ceiling" has held women back from certain positions and opportunities in the workplace. Women are stereotyped as part-time, lower-grade workers with limited opportunities for training and advancement because of this "glass ceiling". How have women managed their careers when confronted by this glass ceiling? It has been difficult; American women have struggled fo...|
|Position Papers||The hobbit||The Hobbit by J.R.R. Tolkien is set in a fantasy world that has differences, as well as similarities, to our own world. The author has created the novel"s world, Middle Earth, not only by using imagination, but by also adding details from the modern world. Realistic elements in the book enable readers to relate to the setting, yet have the ability to "imagine" exciting events and organis...|
|Position Papers||The house of the seven gables- hawthornes personal reflections||Nathanial Hawthorne. Considered to be one of the greatest American writers of the 19th century. But did you know that he hated portraits, and it is now thought that he was a mild manic-depressive? Born in Salem, Massachusetts on July 4, 1804. A decendant of a long puritan line of Hathorne's. His ancestry included his great-great grandfather, John Hathorne who was a judge at the Sale...|
|Position Papers||The iliad||The Iliad Outline &explain the qualities of a "Homeric Hero". Who best fits the bill? Why? The Homeric hero strives to be the best among his peers. His goal is to achieve the greatest glory in order to earn the highest honor from his peers, his commander, and finally from his warrior society. He strives for excellence in particular areas of human ...|
|Position Papers||The illiad in dante's inferno||The Iliad in Dante"s Inferno Dante makes many references to Homer and the Iliad throughout the Inferno. The fates of favorite characters are described during the course of Dante"s travels. Beginning with his vision of Homer in Limbo, continuing through increasingly gory levels of Hell until Dante reaches the eighth bolgia where he meets Ulysses who is engulfed in fire. Dante"s infat...|
|Position Papers||The increasing hostility between two friends before||Gene feels increasing hostility toward Finny before his fall from the tree. In the novel A SEPARATE PEACE by John Knowles, the hostility between Gene and Finny increase because of the competition inside of them both to be better then one another. It is about the increasing competition between Gene and Finny and the hostility it brings. The hostility finally burst in...|
|Position Papers||The invisible man||The Invisible Man, by H.G. Wells, is composed of many small themes that combined to form two major themes in the novel. Some of the minor themes are acting before thinking and denial of unexplainable events. It is based on the two major themes of science experiments gone wrong and the ignorance of society. The most important theme in the novel was the experiment that Griffin, the invisible...|
|Position Papers||The joy luck club movie vs book||In the novel, The Joy Luck Club, by Amy Tan, it tells of four Chinese women drawn together in San Francisco to play mah jong, and tell stories of the past. These four women and their families all lived in Chinatown and belong to the First Chinese Baptist Church. They were not necessarily religious, but found they could improve their home China. This is how the woo's, the Hsu...|
|Position Papers||The jungle||Sinclair's book ,The Jungle probably had to do the most with the fact that he himself was a Socialist. He was brought up in Baltimore, and his family was considerately poor. His father was not very successful at his job and for this reason it seems good to believe he became a Socialist because in communist countries it is said that all people are treated equal. An opposite of t...|
|Position Papers||The jungle by upton sinclair||There are many characters in The Jungle. These characters vary widely in their professions, social status, and economic status. The main character in the novel is a Lithuanian named Jurgis Rudkus. His wife is Ona Lukoszaite, also a Lithuanian. Their son is named Antanas. Mike Scully is a powerful political leader in Packingtown. Phil Connor is a foreman in Packingtown, "poli...|
|Position Papers||The killing of rosencrantz and guildenstern||The Killing of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Hamlet's own Philosophic view. In terms of Hamlet's own philosophic view, the killing of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern is very out-of-character. Hamlet is an intellectual, and therefore believes that killing is not a necessary solution (this could also relate to why he hesitates so long at killing Claudius). He does this more out of anger ...|
|Position Papers||The ladies of missalonghi||The author of the book, The Ladies of Missalonghi, by Colleen McCullough describes to the reader how Missy, an unattractive woman, in a small town differs from Alicia. Missy, the daughter of Drusilla did not really have any self-confidence in herself. "She would begin by wondering what she really looked like. The house owned only one mirror, in the bathroom, and it was forbidden to sta...|
|Position Papers||The lady with the dog - anton chekhov||The Lady With The Dog In the beginning of the story, Chekhov begins with the simple line, "It was said that a new person had appeared on the sea-frontâ¦" This passage shows that the local residents of Yalta have discovered an outsider, a person they know nothing about. Chekhov asks the reader to consider who is she with and why is she there? The character of the sly womanizer, Dmitri Gurov, ...|
|Position Papers||The lake||It was the middle of springtime and across from my house where the incident took place. There was a lake there in which my brother and I loved to explore from time to time. The humidity and waterdrops where reminiscent of a fully functional sauna. The onslaught of heat and burning glow of the sun was relentless. Nonetheless, this fact did not bother us one bit, but gave us...|
|Position Papers||The late bronze age||Trade and Phoenician Development in the Late Bronze Age Little is known about the Phoenician way of life other than the fact that they were a society founded on trade with other, larger nations. These people made use of their natural resources to establish trade with such nations as Egypt and Assyria. The geographical locations of the Phoenician city-states were also advantageous to...|
|Position Papers||The life of al capone||The Life and World Of Al Capone Written By, John Kopler Report By, Adam Monteverde Al Capone is America's best known gangster and the single greatest symbol of the collapse of law and order in the United States during the 1920s Prohibition era. Capone had a leading role in the illegal activities that lent Chicago its reputation as a lawle...|
|Position Papers||The life of sir thomas more||The Life of Sir Thomas More Thomas More was born on February 7, 1478. His life is chronicled in historic writing. He was well schooled and very self-disciplined. His accomplishments throughout his life were, and still are, amazing. More was liked and respected by many. Thomas More came into existence on Milk Street in London. He was born to a privileged family. Having not been born of roya...|
|Position Papers||The light of sight||In this universe there are many thing that we cannot explain. Among these many things is light. Light, as far as we know, come in different wavelengths and the size of the wavelength determine what type of light it is. The middle wavelength lights are what gives us the seven basic colors of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Beside these visible lights there are the lights th...|
|Position Papers||The little prince||THE LITTLE PRINCE In the eyes of a child, there is joy, there is laughter. But as time ages us, as soon as we flowered and became grown-ups the child inside us all fades that we forget that once, we were a child. The story begins about drawings of closed and open boa constrictors. Later, the author relates a story about the Turkish astronomer who discovers the little prince"s home, ...|
|Position Papers||The miracle man; kent state||The Miracle Man "Thomas Jefferson still survives," John Adams" last words most definitely stand true, even today. Thomas Jefferson was a well-educated man with a wealthy and proper British-American upbringing. An excellent education was the beginning step to all the wonderful things Jefferson would do for our country. After college, he became a lawyer, and soon a member of the House...|
|Position Papers||The misconceptions of the jungle by upton sinclair||Upton Sinclair had always insisted that The Jungle was misread but did he ever think it could have been miswritten? The style of writing is not effective when addressing issues in a capitalistic society but proves to be very effective when exposing the secrets of the meatpacking industry. The novel is not remembered for being a classic work in literature but rather an important book in history in...|
|Position Papers||The night nurse||An Unforgettable Night After reading Joyce Carol Oates story, " The Night Nurse," revenge is what is found. This story starts off by a woman by the name of Grace Burkhardt, collapsing at a shopping mall because of a reason that was unknown at the time. She is taken in an ambulance to a hospital where she undergoes an emergency surgery for a blood clot that is in her leg that could have travel...|
|Position Papers||The oddyssey in popular culture||Many forms of popular culture today are inspired by themes, characters, and other references in various types of classical literature. John Denver"s song "Calypso" parallels with a number of the themes in Homer"s the Odyssey. The Odyssey"s themes involving Odysseus" journey back home and the aid of gods and goddesses directly influence "Calypso." The first stanza in Calypso is influenced by...|
|Position Papers||The only fish i wanted to catch||The Only Fish I Wanted To Catch A sensation of astounding warmth enshrouded my mind and body as I blankly stared out on to the choppy lake. I realized that the blinding sun was sure to burn me by the end of the day. I was completely clueless as to where the day would take me. At first I was a little apprehensive about climbing into the small rowboat and heading out there for the entire...|
|Position Papers||The parable of the doorkeeper||The Parable is simple and straightforward. It foreshadows the death of K. Although that is not all it does. The character of the doorkeeper is the interesting one. He is made up of all the characters that K has interacted with, thatt have to do with his case. The doorkeeper is a blend of the warders, the Inspector, the washer-woman, the distrist judge, the lawyer and th...|
|Position Papers||The pigman||The Pigman The topic I chose to write about is lonely. Many characters in The Pigman are lonely. Some of the characters in the story that are lonely are John, Loraine, Mr.Pignati, and Bobo. My definition of lonely is to be by ones self. Another definition of lonely is being forgotten, left alone. An example of lonely is "The boy was left alone in the park." In the story, the most l...|
|Position Papers||The pit and the pendelum||Steven Clark Pg.1 The Pit and the Pendulum The Pit and the Pendulum is a story about a man confined to a prison cell and tortured mercilessly in Toledo Spain during the Spanish Inquisition. Edgar Allen Poe's story is powerful because the prisoner tells the story of his torture. Given this you know he is going to survive which helps make the mystery so much more complex. The p...|
|Position Papers||The power and the glory: "the roof couldn't keep out this rain"||The Power and the Glory: "The roof couldn't keep out this rain." (p. 152) "Hope is an instinct only the reasoning human mind can kill. An animal never knows despair." -Graham Greene, "The Power and the Glory" (p. 141) In Graham Greene's The Power and the Glory, setting is essential in understanding the spiritual conquest of the main ch...|
|Position Papers||The prince and the pauper||The Prince and the Pauper On an autumn day in the ancient city of London, in the second quarter of sixteenth century, a boy was born to a poor family of the name Canty. On the same day another English baby was born of a rich family of the name of Tudor. There was talk in England about the new baby, Edward Tudor, Prince of Wales, who lapped in silk and satin. While on the other hand Tom ...|
|Position Papers||The pursuit of dreams||The Pursuit of Dreams Sometimes in life, when a person wants something with enough passion, everything seems to go perfectly accordingly to how it was planned. Paulo Coelho, the author of the Alchemist, calls this desire a personal legend. Everyone, when they are young, knows what their personal legend is, and at that point in their lives everything is clear and possible. However, as time ...|
|Position Papers||The raising of children||The raising of the children in Wuthering Heights seemed to be mostly done by the nannies. In fact, the story is mainly told from the perspective of Nelly Dean, the housekeeper of Thrushcross Grange and Wuthering Heights. Upper-class parents delegated the entire care of their children to a nurse or a "nanny". The nanny and the children occupied a separate wing or floor of the...|
|Position Papers||The revolt of mother||In "The Revolt of Mother," written by Mary E. Wilkins Freeman, along with the narrator, we can experience how human beings communicate. Time and setting are the most important definitions of a person"s life. A person cannot change the time he lives in. He lives in the present, the past, or the future. However, his place in location, he is able to choose himself. If a person lives in a city, ...|
|Position Papers||The shrew's illusion||Amy Czech Professor Lobanov-Rostovsky English 30 March 3, 2000 The Shrew"s Illusion HORTENSIO: Now go thy ways, thou hast tam"d a curst shrow. LUCENTIO: "Tis a wonder, by your leave, she will be tam"d so. Indeed, Hortentio"s assurance in the taming of the "curst shrow" Katerina seems a wonder to all the audience in the final scene of "The Taming of the Shrew." After hurlin...|
|Position Papers||The stone angel||As Hagar faces implications of growing old, she starts on a tumultuous journey, not one of her own choice, but one of destiny. She goes through different stages of denial, anger, bargaining, depression and finally acceptance of the fact that death will come, invited or not. At one time every individual is faced with death, horrific to the young, or inviting to the sick and the old. Dea...|
|Position Papers||The surroundings of man||Lisa Trask Mr. Bronner Advanced Sophomore English 1 November 1999 The Surroundings of Man Is man really born with a evil persona or a persona that is worthy as an angel or is man born naked for a reason because he has nothing to bring to this world but himself? A person is not innately any characteristic, he was brought to the world from love and must choose to love or...|
|Position Papers||The tenth man||THE TENTH MAN BY GRAHAM GREENE The Tenth Man by Graham Greene The book The Tenth Man by Graham Greene takes place in France in the 1940s during the German occupation of France during the second world war. It starts of in a German prison with the narrator talking about the prisoners singling out two spe...|
|Position Papers||The thematic significance of the floral images in wide sargasso sea.||Wide Sargasso Sea is the story of Antoinette Cosway, a Creole heiress who grew up in the West Indies on a decaying plantation. When she comes of age she is married off to an Englishman, and he takes her away from the only place she has known--a house with a garden where "the paths were overgrown and a smell of dead flowers mixed with the fresh living smell. Underneath the tree ferns, tal...|
|Position Papers||The theme of inherit the wind||In the play Inherit the Wind by Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee, the theme is that every person has the right to think. One example of the theme of this play is Rachel's progression towards independent thinking. In the beginning Rachel fears her father greatly. She says, "I remember feeling this way when I was a little girl. . . .But I was always more frightened of him that I was of fal...|
|Position Papers||The third thing that killed my father(for the love of the fish)||For the Love of the Fish In the short story "The Third Thing That Killed My Father," Raymond Carver explores the life of the town outcast. Through the observations of a young boy and his father Carver tells the story of a man caught in himself, and captures the true essence of a mans character and his conflicts. Dummy the town outcast finds himself in a struggle to protect the one thing ...|
|Position Papers||The tyger||"The Tyger" Ana Melching 5-8-99 Does god create both gentle and fearful creatures? If he does what right does he have? Both of these rhetorical questions are ...|
|Position Papers||The ultimate zen||The one problem with something being lost is the feeling one has for the object once it is gone. That felling of need and longing just creates pain. One could get rid of pain and loss if one could detach one"s self from these tokens. All emotional pain and suffering could be obliterated if one could think of all things, even people, as just things that come and go. This is not an excuse not to...|
|Position Papers||The unknown citizen||The Poem "The Unknown Citizen" by W.H. Auden is a satire. Its narrator is the state. In this, the state pays tribute and describes a successful and positive product of its efficiency and effectiveness. In other words, it builds the character later described to the reader as "the perfect citizen." The narrator speaks as if he is delivering a speech or common tribute using words and p...|
|Position Papers||The unprincipled family||The Unprincipled Family Fredrick Per8 Interrelated arts The dangerous relationship of Claudius, the king, and Hamlet, the king"s nephew and stepson, contain two elements that are pervasive enough to categorize it as such. Treachery and paranoia are those traits. Treachery is one of the basic unprinciples of the relationship, as is shown in the scene of the fencing match and the...|
|Position Papers||The viking||The Vikings Viking History The Vikings were a group of Scandinavian raiders that were around from about the 8th century to the 11th. They mainly attacked the British Islands , the Frankish empire, England, but they also plundered places such as the Iberian peninsula and northern Africa. Vikings did not always settle into the places that they found, for instance after exploring North Am...|
|Position Papers||The whiteness of the whale||The Great White Whale and its Many Meanings Herman Melville, in his epic novel Moby-Dick, utilizes the symbolism of the color of the Great White Whale to demonstrate his theme of duality. However, Captain Ahab tragically had a single mind set towards Moby Dick, as he believed that the whale was the symbol of the world"s evil and had to be destroyed. On the other hand, Ishmael sees t...|
|Position Papers||The wild duck (ibsen) character use of escapes||People cannot handle stress everyday without having some form of an "escape," which could be as simple as listening to the radio for ten minutes, as long as it gets the mind off the stress. The use of escapes is especially evident in The Wild Duck. Old Akers uses drinking and hunting in the attic as his escapes from the fact that he is poor. He used to be friends with Mr. ...|
|Position Papers||The woman warrior||The Woman Warrior The most important theme that really stood out to me was the talk stories. The whole book mainly deals with the talk stories. The second theme that I felt that had a major impact in this book was ghost. Ghosts have an impact because the stories that are told about them that affect the kids resulting in their isolation from society. These themes are very imp...|
|Position Papers||Thousand acres||A Thousand Acres, by Jane Smiley, is a story of incest, ignorance, and the imperialistic voice of the almighty man. Ignorance of being lead by a man, particular views of Rose and Ginny, and domesticated to believe that "When we are good girls and accept our circumstances, we're glad about it. . .When we are bad girls, it drives us crazy" (99). The imperiali...|
|Position Papers||Three days to see by helen kellar||"Three Days to See" Helen Kellar (1880-1968) Helen Kellar has proved to be one of the greatest role models of not just disabled people, but also people striving towards a goal. Helen Keller (1880-1968) was born in Alabama, USA. When she grew to be 19 months old, her body was taken from sight and hearing. Through this rough time in her life, she still had hope thanks to the gracious ...|
|Position Papers||Throgsneck||History of Throgs Neck and Maritime College. "In September 1642, John Throgmorton , with 35 families applied to the Dutch authorities in Niew Amsterdam for permission to settle in. Permission was granted in October 1642, and the conlonists settled on the long neck lying south of what is Eastchester Bay today and named it Throgmorton"s Neck after their leader. By the time of the American R...|
|Position Papers||Tim o'brien's the things they carried||Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried is not a novel about the Vietnam War. It is a story about the soldiers and their experiences and emotions that are brought about from the war. O'Brien makes several statements about war through these dynamic characters. He shows the violent nature of soldiers under the pressures of war, he makes an effective antiwar statement, and he comment...|
|Position Papers||Time compression||Thousands of years ago, Man created (discovered?) gunpowder. Sixty years ago, he discovered the power of the atom. Twenty-five years ago, computers were primarily tools of universities, large corporations and government agencies. Now a Personal Computer is commonplace in homes; suburban kids have computers with capabilities 100 fold of their corporate ancestors. The Internet was in a similar state...|
|Position Papers||Titus||Desdemona, on the other hand, is only heard talking naturally with other people. Yet, she too is developed through both the content and form of her speech. For example, Desdemona's conversations with Emilia, particularly at the end of the play (IV, iii), reveal aspects of her character as well as Emilia's character. Have students look at these and discuss what they reveal about each of...|
|Position Papers||To take or not to take||To toke or not to toke that is the question. Whether tis nobler in the mind to suffer the slings and arrows of society or succumb to popular opinion and legalize Marijuana. Marijuana is a cure for anorexia as well as glaucoma. Marijuana is even a helping factor for relieving some symptoms of A.I.D.S. Still the government of our nation has Marijuana classified as a Division I drug. Which m...|
|Position Papers||Tolstoy's three hermits||Between 1875 and 1877, Leo Tolstoy, nobility by birth, wrote installments of Anna Karenina. While writing Anna Karenina," he became obsessed with the meaning and purpose of life. This led Tolstoy to compose the essay, My Confession, detailing his agonizing religious and moral self-examination, published in 1882. He devoted another three years to the discovery of the meaning and purpose of life....|
|Position Papers||Tom green vs. cheech maron||Tom Green is the type of guy who probably got kicked out of class all the time. Teachers, Principal, and administrators knew his name. The guy who was never taken seriously. Tom Green is a male Stefanie. The reason being, in comparison, both are hyper, crazy, and love to make other laugh and just straight out have a good time. Tom is guaranteed to make people laugh and take his ...|
|Position Papers||Totalitarian society||Living in a society with limited freedom of expression is not, in any case, enjoyable. A Totalitarian society is a good example of such a society, because although it provides control for the people, it can deny them a great deal of freedom to express themselves. The fictional society in George Orwell's "1984" stands as a metaphor for a Totalitarian society. Communication, personal beliefs, and in...|
|Position Papers||Transcendentalis||Transcendentalism was a literary movement in the first half of the 19th century. The philosophical theory contained such aspects as self-examination, the celebration of individualism, and the belief that the fundamental truths existed outside of human experience. Fulfillment of this search for knowledge came when one gained an acute awareness of beauty and truth, and communi...|
|Position Papers||Truly a living hell||Ethan Frome by Edith Wharton is known as a classic novel of American realism. This short novel described a mournful situation that ruined the already afflicted lives of two lovers, and also depicted a third person whose life was dramatically changed. The catastrophe that was encountered by the characters was caused by simple human emotions. These fears and passions eventually ...|
|Position Papers||Truth disguised by words||Truth Disguised by Words Throughout history people have used disguises to deceive others to hide their true identity. Hiding ones true identity is a predominant theme throughout King Lear for characters dress up to deceive their friends and family. Another use of disguise in this play is using words to hide ones true emotions and personality. Words have a strong importance to the ch...|
|Position Papers||U.s presidents (dwight d. eisenhower)||Dwight D. Eisenhower was born on October 14,1890 in Denison Texas. His parents were David Jacob Eisenhower and Ida Stover Eisenhower. He had two older brothers Arthur and Edgar and three youger ones Roy,Earl and Milton. Predictions made in his highschool year book saw Dwight as becoming a history professor and strangly enough his older brother Edgar becoming President of the UnitedStates. ...|
|Position Papers||Un-victorian tenets of browning in karshish||Browning"s Karshish Robert Browning"s "An Epistle Containing the Strange Medical Experience of Karshish, the Arab Physician" is a dramatic monologue in which Karshish writes to Abib about his experiencing the miracle of Jesus, when he raises Lazarus from the dead. "Karshish" is a dramatic monologue containing most of the tenets of Browning. Although "Karshish" is in the fo...|
|Position Papers||Understanding eskimo science||In Richard Nelson"s "Understanding Eskimo Science" a man, Nelson, traveled below the Arctic Circle in the boreal forest of interior Alaska were he lived, studied and interacted with a few native Eskimos groups during the mid-1960"s. Throughout the article Nelson provides an abundance of interesting and relevant information about Eskimo survival coming about through ...|
|Position Papers||Us foreign affairs||U.S. Military Aid to Foreign Nations The United States military aid given to Kosovo raises many questions about the foreign affairs policy of the United States of America. Now the U.S. is sending its troops to Timor, a small island off the northern coast of Australia. The U.S. has sent marines to Australia to set up a command post for the troops that the United States will be sending to ...|
|Position Papers||Vanity in "the man that corrpted hadleyburg"||Rod Hollimon For the love of Money, People will steal from their brothers, For the love of money, People will rob their own mothersâ¦ People who don"t have money Don"t let money change youâ¦ -- The O"Jays After reading "The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg," by Mark Twain, the (above) song "For The Love of Money," by the r&b sin...|
|Position Papers||Video games|
WRITINGA POSITION PAPER
The following material explains how to produce a position paper (sometimes calleda point of view paper). A template is provided that outlines the major parts ofa good position paper. Keep inmind, however, that this is just a guide. Talk to your TAs about theirindividual expectations. Your TAs may want you to include some criteria that donot appear in this outline. Make sure you check with them.
Like a debate, a position paper presents one side of an arguable opinionabout an issue. The goal of a position paper is to convince the audience thatyour opinion is valid and defensible. Ideas that you are considering need to becarefully examined in choosing a topic, developing your argument, andorganizing your paper. It is very important to ensure that you are addressingall sides of the issue and presenting it in a manner that is easy for youraudience to understand. Your job is to take one side of the argument andpersuade your audience that you have well-founded knowledge of the topic beingpresented. It is important to support your argument with evidence to ensure thevalidity of your claims, as well as to refute the counterclaims to show thatyou are well informed about both sides.
To take a side on a subject, you should first establish the arguability of atopic that interests you. Ask yourself the following questions to ensure thatyou will be able to present a strong argument:
- Is it a real issue, with genuine controversy and uncertainty?
- Can you identify at least two distinctive positions?
- Are you personally interested in advocating one of these positions?
- Is the scope of the issue narrow enough to be manageable?
In the CMNS 130 courseware thearticle by Fleras begins to set out a range of issues you may choose toaddress. Your tutorial leader will also have a set of suggested paper topics.The suggested paper topics will also be available on the CMNS 130 website.
Analyzing an Issue and Developing anArgument
Once your topic is selected, you should do some research on the subjectmatter. While you may already have an opinion on your topic and an idea aboutwhich side of the argument you want to take, you need to ensure that yourposition is well supported. Listing thepro and con sides of the topic will help you examine your ability to supportyour counterclaims, along with a list of supporting evidence for both sides.Supporting evidence includes the following:
Type of Information
Type of Source
How to find these sources
introductory information and overviews
directories, encyclopedias, handbooks
Use the Library catalogue
books, government reports
Library catalogue, Canadian Research Index, Government web sites
government agencies and associations
Statistics Canada, Canadian Research Index, journal articles
position papers and analyses
association and institute reports
Library catalogue, web sites
Many of these sources can be locatedonline through the library catalogue and electronic databases, or on the Web.You may be able to retrieve the actual information electronically or you mayhave to visit a library to find the information in print. The librarian’spresentation on October 10th after your mid-term exam will assist inyour orientation of the SFU library.
** You do not have to useall of the above supporting evidence in your papers. This is simply a list ofthe various options available to you. Consult your separate assignment sheet toclarify the number and type of sources expected.
Considering your audience and determining your viewpoint
Once you have made your pro and con lists, compare the information side byside. Considering your audience, as well as your own viewpoint, choose theposition you will take.
Considering your audience does not mean playing up to the professoror the TA. To convince a particular person that your own views are sound, youhave to consider his or her way of thinking. If you are writing a paper for asociology professor/TA obviously your analysis would be different from what itwould be if you were writing for an economics, history, or communicationsprofessor/TA. You will have to make specific decisions about the terms youshould explain, the background information you should supply, and the detailsyou need to convince that particular reader.
In determining your viewpoint, ask yourself the following:
- Is your topic interesting? Remember that originality counts. Be aware that your professor/TA will probably read a number of essays on the same topic(s), so any paper that is inventive and original will not only stand out but will also be appreciated.
- Can you manage the material within the specifications set by the instructor?
- Does your topic assert something specific, prove it, and where applicable, propose a plan of action?
- Do you have enough material or proof to support your opinion?
___A. Introduce the topic
___B. Provide background on the topic to explain why it is important
___C. Assert the thesis (your view of the issue). More on thesis statements canbe found below.
Your introduction has a dual purpose: to indicate both the topic and yourapproach to it (your thesis statement), and to arouse your reader’s interest inwhat you have to say. One effective way of introducing a topic is to place itin context – to supply a kind of backdrop that will put it in perspective. Youshould discuss the area into which your topic fits, and then gradually leadinto your specific field of discussion (re: your thesis statement).
II. Counter Argument
___A. Summarize the counterclaims
___B. Provide supporting information for counterclaims
___C. Refute the counterclaims
___D. Give evidence for argument
You can generate counterarguments by asking yourself what someone whodisagrees with you might say about each of the points you've made or about yourposition as a whole. Once you have thought up some counterarguments, considerhow you will respond to them--will you concede that your opponent has a pointbut explain why your audience should nonetheless accept your argument? Will youreject the counterargument and explain why it is mistaken? Either way, you willwant to leave your reader with a sense that your argument is stronger thanopposing arguments.
When you are summarizing opposing arguments, be charitable. Present eachargument fairly and objectively, rather than trying to make it look foolish.You want to show that you have seriously considered the many sides of theissue, and that you are not simply attacking or mocking your opponents.
It is usually better to consider one or two serious counterarguments in somedepth, rather than to give a long but superficial list of many different counterargumentsand replies.
Be sure that your reply is consistent with your original argument. Ifconsidering a counterargument changes your position, you will need to go backand revise your original argument accordingly.
For more on counterarguments visit: http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/argument.html
III. Your Argument
___A. Assert point #1 of your claims
_____1. Give your educated and informed opinion
_____2. Provide support/proof using more than one source (preferably three)
___B. Assert point #2 of your claims
_____1. Give your educated and informed opinion
_____2. Provide support/proof using more than one source (preferably three)
___C. Assert point #3 of your claims
_____1. Give your educated and informed opinion
_____2. Provide support/proof using more than one source (preferably three)
You may have more than 3 overall points to your argument, but you shouldnot have fewer.
___A. Restate your argument
___B. Provide a plan of action but do not introduce new information
The simplest and most basic conclusion is one that restates the thesis indifferent words and then discusses itsimplications.
Stating Your Thesis
A thesis is a one-sentencestatement about your topic. It's an assertion about your topic, something youclaim to be true. Notice that a topic alone makes no such claim; it merelydefines an area to be covered. Tomake your topic into a thesis statement, you need to make a claimabout it, make it into a sentence. Look back over your materials--brainstorms,investigative notes, etc.--and think about what you believe to be true. Thinkabout what your readers want or need to know. Then write a sentence, preferablyat this point, a simple one, stating what will be the central idea of yourpaper. The result should look something like this:
OriginalSubject: an important issue inmy major field
FocusedTopic:media technologyeducation for communication majors
Thesis:Theories of media technology deserve a more prominent place in thisUniversity’s Communication program
Or if your investigations led you to a different belief:
Thesis: Communication majors at this University receive asolid background in theories of media technology
It's always good to have a thesis you can believe in.
Notice, though, that a sentence stating an obvious and indisputable truthwon't work as a thesis:
Thesis: This University has a Communication major.
That's a complete sentence, and it asserts something to be true, but as athesis it's a dead end. It's a statement of fact, pure and simple, and requireslittle or nothing added. A good thesisasks to have more said about it. It demands some proof. Yourjob is to show your reader that your thesis is true.
Remember, you can't just pluck a thesis out of thin air. Even if you haveremarkable insight concerning a topic, it won't be worth much unless you canlogically and persuasively support it in the body of your essay. A thesis isthe evolutionary result of a thinking process, not a miraculous creation.Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading the essayassignment. Deciding on a thesis does not come first. Before you can come up with an argument on anytopic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possiblerelationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts orsimilarities), and think about the beneath-the-surface significance of theserelationships. After this initial exploration of the question at hand, you canformulate a "working thesis," an argument that you think will makesense of the evidence but that may need adjustment along the way. Inother words, do not show up at your TAs office hours expecting them to help youfigure out your thesis statement and/or help organize your paper unless youhave already done some research.
For more information regarding thesis statements visit: http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/thesis.html
Writing with style and clarity
Many students make the mistake of thinking that the content of their paperis all that matters. Although the content is important, it will not mean muchif the reader can’t understand what you are trying to say. You may have somegreat ideas in your paper but if you cannot effectively communicate them, youwill not receive a very good mark. Keep the following in mind when writing yourpaper:
Diction refers to the choice of words for the expression of ideas; theconstruction, disposition, and application of words in your essay, with regardto clearness, accuracy, variety, etc.; mode of expression; and language. Thereis often a tendency for students to use fancy words and extravagant images inhopes that it will make them sound more intelligent when in fact the result isa confusing mess. Although this approach can sometimes be effective, it isadvisable that you choose clear words and be as precise in the expression ofyour ideas as possible.
Creating clear paragraphs is essential. Paragraphs come in so many sizes andpatterns that no single formula could possibly cover them all. The two basicprinciples to remember are these:
1) A paragraph is a means of developing and framing an idea orimpression. As a general rule, you should address only one major idea perparagraph.
2) The divisions between paragraphs aren’t random, but indicate ashift in focus. In other words you must carefully and clearly organize theorder of your paragraphs so that they are logically positioned throughout yourpaper. Transitions will help you with this.
For further information on paragraph development visit: http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/paragraphs.html
In academic writing your goal is to convey information clearly andconcisely, if not to convert the reader to your way of thinking. Transitionshelp you to achieve these goals by establishing logical connections betweensentences, paragraphs, and sections of your papers. In other words, transitionstell readers what to do with the information you present them. Whether singlewords, quick phrases or full sentences, they function as signs for readers thattell them how to think about, organize, and react to old and new ideas as theyread through what you have written.
Transitions signal relationships between ideas. Basically, transitionsprovide the reader with directions for how to piece together your ideas into alogically coherent argument. They are words with particular meanings that tellthe reader to think and react in a particular way to your ideas. In providingthe reader with these important cues, transitions help readers understand thelogic of how your ideas fit together.
also, in the same way, just as ... so too, likewise, similarly
but, however, in spite of, on the one hand ... on the other hand, nevertheless, nonetheless, notwithstanding, in contrast, on the contrary, still, yet
first, second, third, ... next, then, finally
after, afterward, at last, before, currently, during, earlier, immediately, later, meanwhile, now, recently, simultaneously, subsequently, then
for example, for instance, namely, specifically, to illustrate
even, indeed, in fact, of course, truly
above, adjacent, below, beyond, here, in front, in back, nearby, there
Cause and Effect
accordingly, consequently, hence, so, therefore, thus
Additional Support or Evidence
additionally, again, also, and, as well, besides, equally important, further, furthermore, in addition, moreover, then
finally, in a word, in brief, in conclusion, in the end, in the final analysis, on the whole, thus, to conclude, to summarize, in sum, in summary
For more information on transitions visit: http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/transitions.html
Grammar and Spelling
You must make certain that your paper is free from grammar and spellingmistakes. Mechanical errors are usually the main reason for lack of clarity inessays, so be sure to thoroughly proof read your paper before handing it in. Forhelp with common errors in grammar and usage consult the following websites:
Plagiarism and academic honesty
Plagiarism is a form of stealing; as with other offences against the law, ignoranceis no excuse. The way to avoid plagiarismis to give credit where credit is due. If you are using someone else’s idea,acknowledge it, even if you have changed the wording or just summarized themain points.
To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you use
- another person's idea, opinion, or theory;
- any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings--any pieces of information--that are not common knowledge;
- quotations of another person's actual spoken or written words; or
- paraphrase of another person's spoken or written words.
In addition to plagiarism,SFU has policies regarding other forms of academic dishonesty. For moreinformation on SFU’s policies regarding academic honesty consult yourundergraduate calendar or http://www.sfu.ca/policies/teaching/t10-02.htm.If any of the University’s policies are not clear you must ask your professoror TA for clarification. Again, ignorance is no excuse.
The information included in the document “Writing a Position Paper” wasadapted from the following sources:
Guilford, C.(2001). Occasions forArgumentative Essays. Writing Argumentative Essays. Retrieved August 26, 2002 from the World Wide Web:http://www.powa.org/argufrms.htmPreviously adapted from: Hairston, M. (1982) A Contemporary Rhetoric(3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Northey, M. (1993). Making Sense: a student’s guide to research, writing,and style (3rd ed.). Toronto: Oxford University Press.
UHWO Writing Center (1998) Writing a Position Paper. Retrieved August 26,2002 from the World Wide Web: http://homepages.uhwo.hawaii.edu/~writing/position.htm
UNC-CH Writing Center(2000). ConstructingThesis Statements. Writing Center Handouts. Retrieved August 26, 2002 from theWorld Wide Web:http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/thesis.html
UNC-CH Writing Center(2000). EffectiveAcademic Writing: The Argument. Writing Center Handouts. Retrieved August 26,2002 from the World Wide Web: http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/argument.html
UNC-CH Writing Center(2000). Paragraph Development. Writing CenterHandouts.Retrieved August 26, 2002 from the World Wide Web:http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/thesis.html
UNC-CH Writing Center(2000). Transitions. Writing Center Handouts. Retrieved August 26,2002 from the World Wide Web:http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/thesis.html